Malaria Symptoms, Causes And Treatment With Prevention in India or Pakistan
Malaria is an acute infectious illness, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes, usually mosquito bite in unhygienic areas during night. In the human body, single-celled parasites carried by the mosquito enter the bloodstream and move to the liver. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide. In liver mosquitoes mature and proliferate for several days and cause no symptoms. Finally, the plasmodium reenter the bloodstream and infect the red blood cells.
After multiplying for two to three days the parasites cause massive destruction of the red cells. This initiates the classic cycle of malaria symptoms that last 12-to 24 hours.
Malaria is an acute infectious disease, usually transmitted by the bite of a mosquito. Single-celled parasites (plasmodia) carried by the mosquito enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver.
There they mature and proliferate for several day or weeks and cause no symptoms. Eventually, however, the plasmodia reenter the bloodstream and infect the red blood cells. After multiplying for two to three days the parasites cause massive destruction of red cells. This initiates the classic cycle of malaria symptoms that last 12-24 hours.
It begins as a period of uncontrollable shivering and chills, followed by a fever as high as 105F. Finally, a period of profuse sweating occurs, which helps the body temperature return to the normal. The patient is left exhausted but otherwise temporarily free of symptoms.
However, plasmodia released from dying red cells and those continuing to multiply in the liver infect other red cells and cause repeated attacks, usually every two to three days. If untreated, attacks can continue intermittently for years and nay be fetal, although the body gradually builds up defenses, against the disease. While malaria is already life threatening, one form of the diseases caused by the parasites Plasmodium Falciparum, releases all of the parasites into the blood stream at once and produces a single severe attack that is sometimes fatal. Falciparum malaria may be complicated by kidney failure or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
What causes IT?
Malaria is caused by single-celled parasites (plasmodia), usually transmitted to their human hosts via the bites of an infected female anopheles mosquito. This disease is most common in tropical areas.
Malaria may be spread during a blood transfusion or by sharing needles for intravenous drug use.
Pregnant women with malaria can transmit the infection to their unborn children.
Before departing for a tropical or subtropical area, see your doctor or, preferably, go to a travel clinic when you can obtain information on the types of malaria (including drug-resistant malaria) presently found in the area of your destination. Recommendations may include taking the antimalarial drug chloroquine before leaving and for at least four weeks after returning. In a growing number of areas, such as Southeast Asia, Colombia, and Africa, plasmodia are resistant to chloroquine. For trips to such places, other drugs, such as mefloquine or doxycycline are necessary.
When in mosquito-infested areas, put mosquito netting over beds, use insect repellents, and install window screens. Wear long-sleeve-shirts and long pants of you go out during mosquito-prone hours. Stay indoors between dusk and dawn, the hours when mosquitoes feed.
Patient history and physical examination are needed.
Blood smears and examined for parasites.
How to treat it
Hospitalization is often required. The drug chloroquine is administered to kill parasites in the blood. To kill choloquine-resistant plasmodia, other drugs, such as quinine or quinidine, are used.
For malaria other than that due to P. falciparum (which causes only one attack), an additional drug, primaquine, must be taken for two weeks. This kills parasites in the liver, thereby preventing recurrent attacks.
When to call a Doctor
Contact your doctor before traveling to areas where malaria is prevalent.
See a doctor if malaria symptoms develop or recur.